Generally, no. Phosphors are sometimes confused with the element phosphorus. White Phosphorus is an allotropic form of the element Phosphorus that glows faintly in the dark as it slowly decomposes in a process that liberates light. Phosphorus means 'Light Bearer' and when synthetic materials were made that had luminescent properties 100 years ago it was decided to give them the generic name 'phosphors'. In fact only a small number of phosphors contain Phosphorus, and that is mainly as phosphates.
Luminescence is a process whereby light is continuously emitted from the absorption of light of one wavelength and the emission of another. Phosphorescence is the emission of stored light from earlier absorption.